1. What’s 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) | CAS 110-63-4 ?
1,4-Butanediol (BDO) is a non-corrosive, colorless, high boiling liquid with a low order of toxicity.
1,4-Butanediol(BDO) is completely soluble in water, most alcohols, esters, ketones, glycol ethers and acetates, but may be immiscible or partially miscible in common aliphatic and aromatic/chlorinated hydrocarbons.
1,4-Butanediol(BDO) is produced by Lyondell Chemical Company in a proprietary, multi-step reaction from propylene oxide.
1,4-Butanediol(BDO) is a versatile chemical intermediate because of its terminal, primary hydroxyl groups and its hydrophobic and chemical resistant nature. Polymers produced upon reaction with diacids or diisocyanates are the basis for many commercial polyurethane and polyester applications
2. How does 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) work?
1,4-Butanediol(BDO) is converted to gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in the body. GHB slows down the brain, which can cause loss of consciousness along with dangerous slowing of breathing and other vital functions. It also stimulates growth hormone secretion.
In multiple studies, GHB has been found to impair spatial memory, working memory, learning and memory in rats with chronic administration. These effects are associated with decreased NMDA receptor expression in the cerebral cortex and possibly other areas as well.One study found that repeated administration of GHB to rats for 15 days drastically reduced the number of neurons and non-neuronal cells within the hippocampus and in the prefrontal cortex. With doses of 10 mg/kg of GHB, they were decreased by 61% in the hippocampus region and 32% in the prefrontal cortex, and with 100 mg/kg, they were decreased by 38% and 9%, respectively. This paper demonstrates contradicting effects on neuronal loss, with lower doses (10 mg/kg) producing the most neurotoxicity, and higher doses (100 mg/kg) producing less.
Tolerance and addiction potential
1,4-Butanediol(BDO)/GHB is moderately physically and psychologically addictive. The frequent use of GHB/1,4-Butanediol can cause withdrawal symptoms similar to those caused by other depressants such as alcohol and benzodiazepines.
if abruptly discontinued. These symptoms seem to depend on the dosage and the length of time the drug was used for. Light to moderate users often experience anxiety, insomnia, sleep-related problems, and tremors whereas heavy use can cause severe withdrawal symptoms like delirium, psychosis, and hallucinations
Although there have been reported fatalities due to 1,4-Butanediol(BDO)/GHB withdrawal, reports are inconclusive and further research is needed
Tolerance will develop to the sedative-hypnotic effects within several weeks of continuous use. After cessation, the tolerance returns to baseline in 7 – 14 days. Withdrawal symptoms or rebound symptoms may occur after ceasing usage abruptly following a few weeks or longer of steady dosing, and may necessitate a gradual dose reduction.
3. What’s 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) used for?
As an important organic and fine chemical raw material, 1,4-butanediol is widely used in the fields of medicine, chemical industry, textile, papermaking, automobile and daily chemical industry. 1,4-butanediol application as below：
BDO is used to manufacture polybutylene terephthalate (PBT). PBT’s high strength, excellent thermal stability and good durability lead to its many uses in the automotive, electrical and appliance industries. PBT is also compatible with several other thermoplastics which enables a compounder to tailor a polymer alloy to an end user’s specifications. BDO is a key component of thermoplastic copolyester elastomers. These elastomers rely upon BDO to provide crystallinity which in turn provides elasticity and resilience to these terephthalate-based polyesters.
In polyurethane applications, BDO is primarily used as a component of polyesters or as a chain extender. For example, polyesters such as poly (butylene adipate) diols are formulated into urethane elastomers with excellent oil, chemical and UV resistance. In addition, these materials have good mechanical properties over a broad temperature range, as well as good flex and abrasion resistance.
As a chain extender with MDI systems, BDO provides a good balance between hardness and low temperature flexibility. On comparison to other diols, BDO combines the best attributes of hydroxyl reactivity, linearity and overall system compatibility to build in the proper crystallinity required in the polyurethane hard segment. Also, the BDO/MDI systems provide a lower exposure hazard than MOCA/TDI systems.
BDO is used as a chain extender for thermoplastic urethane elastomers. BDO yields crystalline urethane domains which readily melt and flow at elevated temperatures but phase separate at ambient temperatures in order to yield tough elastomeric networks.
Cast urethane elastomers continue to be a major end use of BDO because of overall consistency and reliability.
Current applications of BDO-based urethane elastomers include automotive front and rear end fascia, bumpers, fenders and spoilers. Non-automotive applications include footwear, electrical enclosures, recreation equipment, appliances and furniture.
Urethane RIM elastomers using BDO allow design freedom and parts consolidation with large, complex shapes.
BDO-based polyester plasticizers impart superior compatibility with vinyl polymers while providing non-migrating characteristics. In addition, polyesters based upon BDO have excellent oxidation resistance and good low temperature flexibility.
Copolyester Hot Melt and Solvent borne Adhesives
BDO is a key component of copolyesters of isophthalic acid and terephthalic acid used in hot melt adhesive applications. BDO yields polyesters with excellent adhesives and cohesive strength.
BDO is the key raw material of several industrially important derivataives, 1,4-Butanediol is used industrially as a solvent and in the manufacture of some types of plastics, elastic fibers and polyurethanes. particularly tetrahydrofuran, γ-butyrolactone (GBL), and N-methyl pyrrolidone.
4. Sesamol benefits
Moisturizing Skin effect
Butylene glycol is a colorless liquid that can penetrate the molecular structure of water and has wipeable moisturizing and water-replenishing properties. It has excellent nutritional hydration and safety factors, so it can be used as a raw material for skin care products
As a polyether polyol substance, butylene glycol can not only be antibacterial, moisturizing and moisturizing, but also can be mixed into skin care products to show the actual effect of moisturizing, moisturizing and anti-aging for the skin. Not only can it maintain the thin water content of the stratum corneum of the skin, but it can also prevent the bone glue from producing metal oxides. It often has a certain practical effect on reducing the hard bottom of the skin and resisting the signs of aging. Compared with many skin care products with some preservatives, butylene glycol is gentle and non-irritating, and it is safer to use on the skin.
What is 1,4-Butanediol(BDO) side effects
1,4-butanediol is only safe in small amounts. Adverse effects in higher doses include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, sedation, vertigo, and potentially death if ingested in large amounts. Anxiolytic effects are diminished and side effects increased when used in combination with alcohol.
(1,4Butanediol, 2M2B, alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, GHB/GBL, methaqualone, opioids)This combination potentiates the muscle relaxation, amnesia, sedation, and respiratory depression caused by one another. At higher doses, it can lead to a sudden, unexpected loss of consciousness along with a dangerous amount of depressed respiration. There is also an increased risk of suffocating on one’s vomit while unconscious. If nausea or vomiting occurs before a loss of consciousness, users should attempt to fall asleep in the recovery position or have a friend move them into it.
It can be dangerous to combine depressants with stimulants due to the risk of accidental excessive intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effect of depressants, which is the main factor most people use to gauge their level of intoxication. Once the stimulant effects wear off, the effects of the depressant will significantly increase, leading to intensified disinhibition, motor control loss, and dangerous black-out states. This combination can also potentially result in severe dehydration if one’s fluid intake is not closely monitored. If choosing to combine these substances, one should strictly limit themselves to a pre-set schedule of dosing only a certain amount per hour until a maximum threshold has been reached.
This combination can unpredictably potentiate the amnesia, sedation, motor control loss and delusions that can be caused by each other. It may also result in a sudden loss of consciousness accompanied by a dangerous degree of respiratory depression. If nausea or vomiting occurs before consciousness is lost, users should attempt to fall asleep in the recovery position or have a friend move them into it.